Welcome to the third and final iteration of the Classic Mac Networking Guide.
This guide will detail the steps and procedures required to network the former generation of Macintoshes to each other, and to modern computers and networks. Most of this guide was written with the "somewhat computer literate" user in mind, as to make it as accessible to the broadest span of computer users.
Mainly, this guide attempts to be very thorough and cover all the most pertinent options for networking and all the related steps to facilitate networking. It is hoped that this guide will be a useful reference source.
This Guide will be primarily focused on networking any Macintosh from the Macintosh 512K up to the last "Beige G3" series that came out just before the first-generation iMac, with either Ethernet or serial data methods like LocalTalk. Some areas of this guide will not be relevant based on hardware or software incompatibilities (i.e. a Plus won't run Mac OS 7.6.1). All the newer computers running Windows or Mac OS X 10.2+ already have networking support over Ethernet, WiFi or other protocols which can be adequately covered elsewhere on the Internet.
The preliminary steps to facilitate use of these older platforms may involve replacing PRAM batteries, dead hard drives, leaking electrolytic capacitors, shot diodes, and the like. These matters should be of first-order importance, as the results of dying electrolytic capacitors and exploding PRAM batteries can be catastrophic. The 68K MLA Forums should continue to be a useful source of helpful comrades to assist with hardware concerns or other technical issues.
AFP Ethernet Networks
- Assorted Notes
File Transfer Protocol
- Mac OS 6 to 9.2.2
- Mac OS X
- Microsoft Windows
- Linux, iOS
- Encountered Issues
Serial Data Interlinks
Internet and Email
- Terminal Transfer
- Pseudo PPP Dialup
- LocalTalk Networks
- DNS, Browsers
- Internet Relay Chat
- Email Clients
- Web Hosting
- Telnet Networking
- Secure Shell
- Infrared Interface
|More Info Page:|
Installing System Software
- Pre-System 6
- System 6.0.8
- System 7.0.1, 7.5.3
- System 7.6 and up
Working with Disk Images
- AppleShare 1.1, 2.0.1, 3, 4, IP 5 & 6
Data Encoding Methods
- Classic Mac OS
- Mac OS X, Linux
- Microsoft Windows
Emergency NADsMac OS X's Web Server
Data Transfer Rates
Amiga / Apple II Networking
A Word about Emulators
Good Networking Games
Special thanks go out to the following members at 68kmla.org: phreakout (hardware help in the beginning days); JDW (for more information, particularly concerning 10.4), kingchops and thatsteve for hardware images; mcdermd for web hosting and invaluable assistance in the early HTML days, a bank of hardware and software for testing; protocol7 for clues concerning the esoteric Netatalk configuration; Cory5412 for maintaining 68kmla.org; and The Internet for providing various sources of software that is practically unobtainable otherwise.
A Macintosh SE/30, the best
Compact ever made
Should any links expire, contact the author for a locally saved version (all links have been saved, save for certain download links) of the first page only; or use the WayBack Machine at http://archive.org/web/web.php. Legal: No warranty, guarantee of accuracy or completeness of any kind; both this page and the More Info page are for informational purposes only and the reader/user assumes all risk and responsibility, and the words and images herein are merely suggestions. We strived for accuracy and detail but we can only go so far in that regard. Privacy: This page and the More Info page do not collect any information about any individual user. Only the internal awstat feature of the server collects information, however this information is not shared with anyone. These two pages do not have any external tracking metrics of any kind.
To start things on a happy note, head here first. (Sooo true....)
Because of the rapid hardware and software "advances" these days it is imperative that a couple of paragraphs about compatibility is presented.
The newer brands of computers, at the time of this writing specifically Apple computers, are making strides towards reducing backwards compatibility. For instance, the newer iMacs do not have onboard Ethernet (that is supplied via a USB > Ethernet adapter, or Thunderbolt > Ethernet) as far as hardware is concerned. In the software department, AFP is not going to be compatible most older machines by default. By the time you read this, the relevant versions of Mac OS X that are desirable for old hardware (like 10.2 Jaguar) are so old and obsolete that obtaining older versions of software for these operating systems can be quite a chore, unlike finding software for Windows 98 or something a bit more mainstream.
The Linux section should remain relevant for some time, but the author cannot guarantee this statement. For one, the Desktop Environment (DE) demonstrated is GNOME 2, which was the standard DE for Ubuntu and some Debian systems, and it is a nice looking DE for the times it was deployed. But GNOME 2 is depreciated and is only being carried on by the MATE project, and we don't know how long that will last. The point is that you may have to a bit of work to do in applying the principles here to your individual system. It is entirely possible to build a stripped down version of Linux that won't take up much space which will have all the important packages (Netatalk, uudeview, hfsutils, and so on) installed that is intended entirely for a VM, for legacy purposes at least.
The good news is that you won't have to do much research or experimentation on the classic Mac side -- that has already been sorted. These developments will probably mean that FTP over Ethernet, AFP over Ethernet inside a virtual machine (VM) like VirtualBox or its brothers, AFP over AppleTalk using an AFP bridge using a virtual machine with Netatalk installed, or worst case scenario, RS232 based file transfer and PPP passthrough techniques could be the only remaining methods (Mac OS X, particularly the older versions, can be somewhat dicey inside virtual machine programs, if it runs at all). So for all the documentation and illustration here, it could all be for naught, but at least it would be interesting from a historical perspective. (Someone is still out there fiddling with a working a DEC PDP-11 series or some VAX hardware, so...) The future is completely unknown from our point of view, so this word is warranted.
Most electronic hardware of an age in excess of ten years will start to show signs of age. The image to the right shows one example of an increasingly common failure point with old hardware like this -- leaking clock batteries and electrolytic capacitors which have failed and then promptly disgorge caustic and acidic compounds onto the motherboard. Owners of genuinely desirable hardware such as SE/30s with socketed CPU motherboards, Macintosh Portables, the Macintosh IIfx, Quadra 840AV, et cetera should establish these repairs without delay and with extra diligence and care. The SE/30 logic board as shown is a total write-off and it is unfortunate that the heart of the system, the motherboard, is the usual target for these catastrophes. (Image credit goes out to volvo242gt at 68kmla.org.) Power supplies and analog boards (128K through the Classic II and Color Classic) are also vulnerable and it is only a matter of time before these incidents will increase in frequency and inevitably require due care and attention. Let's move on to the minimum hardware specifications to interact with modern networks:
SE/30 logic board with PRAM
battery and capacitor damage
- Base Minimum:
- Serial Interlink: Macintosh 128K with MacTerminal 1.1, MacTerminal 2.2 or other 128K-compatible terminal emulators. A second 400KiB external drive is a strong recommendation. A 128K does not have enough memory to run any AppleShare networking software entirely; printing, however, is supported on a limited list of compatible printers (i.e. ImageWriter, see here). It also cannot run the HD20 INIT.
- AppleShare: Macintosh 512K with AppleShare WS 1.1, a DE-9 LocalTalk or PhoneNET adapter, and a Mac pre-OS X that can write 400KiB disks (sustained floppy disk work may best be suited by either a Mac that can boot into System 6, or a HD20 with the HD20 INIT). The 512Ke can run EasyShare, but there is no full version available, so the demo version will have be used. Use System 4.1/Finder 5.5.
- TCP Services: The 512Ke can run NCSA Telnet 2.5, which has an FTP server and its own TCP stack, and SLIP support, or TOPS Terminal. MacTCP 1.x will run on a 512Ke but then the dearth of TCP software that will run it makes it a very interesting subject (Fetch 2.1.2 returned an error saying it needs KSP or MacTCP even though MacTCP 1.1.1 was already installed). A TCP/IP compatible MacIP bridge will be required. The minimum to use any other TCP program via MacTCP or PPP is a Macintosh Plus.
- Practical Minimum: Macintosh Plus 1MB1 with a HD20 or other hard drive solution, a SCSI to Ethernet converter, Ethernet crossover or straight depending on needs, and another Macintosh2 with a 800KiB compatible floppy drive and an Ethernet port.
- Preferred: A Macintosh SE/30, IIsi, IIcx, IIci or higher in good working order, with a 80MiB hard drive or larger, working 1.44MB floppy drive, preferably 32MiB of memory for a 12-20MiB RAM Disk3, at least twenty floppy disks in good order, another Mac that can write floppy disks, Ethernet cross-over cable, Ethernet standard cable, and a RJ45 Ethernet expansion card4. A working CD drive is a bonus as well (or share it over the network); a Zip100 drive can be a useful gadget.
- Platinum Deluxe: A CompactFlash internal storage option5 (requires IDE bus or PCMCIA slots), using a USB capable machine that can boot into OS 9 and install and copy applications directly onto the CF card. Desktop and laptop configurations of adapters may vary. SCSI to IDE adapters are very expensive (like the
Platinum Deluxe CF setup for a PowerBook with IDE or PCMCIA
ACARD models) or are hobbyist affairs (like the SCSI2SD project); for PCMCIA, the adapter is simply a pass-through device. PCMCIA SD card adapters may or may not work.
- Excellent: Simple Ethereal bi-directional reliable cross-platform self-configuring secure wireless network.
1 The maximum memory in this model is 4MiB and is highly recommended. The hard drive is not a mandatory requirement but is a very good idea.
2 Preferably this Mac should boot into Classic OS and have an internal floppy drive, with at least 7.5.5 but OS 9 would be better, and capable of booting into 10.2.8 would be best. Strongly recommended.(It also has other uses, such as older color games) Nearly all Mac machine specs are here. If all you have is a Windows box or Linux unit, then the difficulty of interaction with the vintage computer increases considerably, particularly with Macs without 1.44MB drives.
3 8 Megabytes is plenty if a RAM disk is not a requirement under System 7+. 6.0.8 can only address 8MiB by default, although Optima or Maxima could change that. WWW browsers demand lots of memory with System 7. (6.0.8L can address up to 10MiB.)
Ethereal Wireless Service.
It's out there! :-) Image Source
Varies. SCSI to Ethernet, LocalTalk to Ethernet, NuBus Ethernet, PCI Ethernet, and other configurations. Different machines may have different hardware configurations.5
UDMA and Fixed Disk Mode enabled cards, like the Transcend Industrial series are recommended.
A machine with maxed memory is a sagacious option. Although the SE/30 or similar machines like the IIsi can address up to 128MiB, 32MiB is sufficient for even the most strenuous uses in this platform. Other machines like the PM 7600 could probably benefit from maxed memory, but the SE and Plus will probably benefit the most, because 1 or 2MiB is a rather tight squeeze, but networking can be done irregardless.
Hardware Network Options
The network adapters in question will vary based on the machine in question and the method of interfacing. As this Guide pertains to Ethernet and serial data methods, the machine itself and the software supported, plus the desired method of connecting to other machines will dictate the hardware available.
Caution: The DB-19 floppy port on compatible Macs (68040 and PPC Macs don't have it) is not compatible with Apple II 5.25" disk drives and doing so can destroy the floppy controller chip. The DB-25 SCSI port is also likewise completely incompatible with RS232 DB-25 serial or DB-25 parallel hardware like printers. Just would like to throw that out there because it's not always mentioned. (If the SCSI port having 25 pins seems unusual, it is because it's not standard. The SCSI standard specifies one ground for each signal line, but the Apple implementation merely ties all the ground pins together, contrary to the standard.)
The Macintosh 512K and 512Ke only support LocalTalk or AFP bridges and early terminal emulation software: as mentioned earlier, the 128K or 128Ke lacks sufficient memory to handle networking via AFP; though the MacTerminal 1.1 application runs under System 1.1 and can run from 50bps up to 19200bps, so that should work -- but file transfer is interesting due to the limit of 400KiB disks (and the HD20 will not work with the 128K, barring hacks to format it to MFS (along with a hacked driver), but might work with the 128Ke). All other Macs up to the iMac support LocalTalk and thusly can handle either LocalTalk or serial data transfer methods involving VT100-style terminal emulators. Nearly all of them supported some kind of Ethernet option, although this can vary based on the platform: and Ethernet is vastly superior to the serial methods, in both speed and flexibility.
Machines that sported SCSI ports can use SCSI to Ethernet adapters; such as the Macintosh Portable, which lacks any such upgrade cards; generally speaking this SCSI route can be a "last resort" (or use an AFP bridge, or pseudo-PPP dialup). Other Macintoshes with PDS (Processor Direct Slot) or expansion slots like the SE, SE/30 and Classic series can use proprietary (unique to the specific machine model) cards for Ethernet ports. For machines with AAUI ports like the Quadra 660AV, PowerBook 5300 series and so forth, AAUI to RJ45 adapters are relatively inexpensive and work fine. For Macs that came with NuBus slots (like the Mac II series (except the stock IIsi), the Quadra 700, Quadra 950, et cetera) then NuBus cards with Ethernet is a practical option (try to get ones with RJ45 plugs rather than AUI or 10BASE-2). Not all NuBus cards are the same length, just like PCI cards: there are full-length 12-inch (30.5cm) and "half-length" 7-inch (17.8cm) versions. (Image shows a IIci cache card, Radius Rocket 33 with DSP daughter card and Farallon NIC.)
Warning: Always make sure the pins on the NuBus or PDS card which mate to the motherboard slot are not knackered before the card is inserted: they are difficult to repair or replace and are quite vulnerable.
Testing an AsanteFAST 10/100 NuBus card as shown nearby indicated that while the link will be over 100BASE-T, the limitations of the older machine hold it back to basically the same as a regular 10BASE-T card. See the More Info page, Data Transfer Rates section for speed tests. (Install NSI software first, then the 10/100 driver if you nab one of these. Although the software indicates that it requires System 7, it'll work in System 6 regardless. Use a Custom Install to install the driver.)
Mac IIci with NuBus Ethernet card and
an AsanteFAST 10/100 NuBus card
Certain Macs like the LC 575, 580, the Power Macintosh 6200/75 and the Performa 5300CD series have Communications Slots on the motherboard for CommSlot Ethernet cards. The LC series like the LCII and the Color Classic use the proprietary LC PDS bus which can use LC PDS Ethernet cards. (Some Ethernet cards for the LC line may not conform to the height standard of 12.9mm, and may run into interference issues. There's also a difference in the PDS slots, some have 96 pin Euro-DIN connectors and others are of the 114 pin type; the 96 pin variant is a 16-bit bus and the 114 pin is a 32-bit bus. The "extra" 18 pins are merely a "add-on" and 96 pin cards will work fine, though the 68040 class of machines emulate 68030 PDS instructions. The Designing Cards and Drivers for the Macintosh Family book describes this subject in more detail: a PDF is around on the web, hosted by dec8.info.)
Shiva EtherPort expansion card for
the Macintosh SE (AUI, 10BASE-2)
PowerBook Duos can obtain Ethernet capabilities either through a Duo Dock equipped with an Ethernet option, an EtherDock (the 280 and 2300c are not supported), Asante NetDock, Asante Micro EN/SC, or the ultimate minidock, the Newer Technologies UltraDock 16sce. The eMachines EtherDock is pretty similar to the standard Apple MiniDock but has a RJ-45 plug in place of the RJ-11 modem. The problem with PowerBook Duos (and Macintosh Classic I and II) is that the networking cards or docks tend to be somewhat rare and can be somewhat expensive: but there is some relief with AFP bridges -- see the next subsection below.
Other PowerBooks like the 1400 series usually have at least one PCMCIA expansion slot available. These present a special concern in that they are not 32-bit CardBus slots. All CardBus PCMCIA cards are 32-bit; otherwise, PCMCIA cards are 16-bit only. 32-bit cards are not supported on any PowerBook except the models listed here: but don't worry, it's not possible to insert a CardBus card all the way into a 16-bit slot. The easiest way to identify a CardBus card from a 16-bit card is to look at the end of the card. All CardBus cards have a strip with raised indents on the front edge. Before you buy, make sure that the respective driver is available first. Try to hunt down a model which has drivers that go back to System 7.5 or 7.6, like the Farallon EtherMac PC Card: part number 595, 595a, 895; the first two have a red arrow above "Insert This Side Up" and the latter has a blue arrow. Just so everybody knows, not all these PCMCIA cards will have all the pins present on the Ethernet jack (so an AFP bridge may not work). Some are wired as crossover, too.
Otherwise, there are three nominal kinds of Ethernet adapters that came in the PCMCIA format. The first is a version with the XJACK connector that Megahertz (subsidiary of 3Com) pushed. It is decent but a gentle hand is probably a good idea because excess force could damage the retractable jack (and some versions are missing some pins on the RJ45 jack). This adapter variant would be ideal for PowerBooks except they are a gigantic flop for Mac users because the driver situation is a total mess. The second kind, which is the most common, has a tiny connector on the end of the PC card and requires the appropriate dongle, so make sure that comes with the unit. Like the 30-pin Apple docking connector as was used in the early span of iPhone, iPad and iPod units, it is prone to weakening with use. The last version has a built-in extension which has the RJ45 plug but this also makes it vulnerable to being whacked by accident and unintentional application of force.
PCMCIA Ethernet and WiFi cards
Most 10/100 cards are CardBus and thusly are only compatible with the later PowerBook G3 and G4 models -- which already have RJ45 Ethernet and some have AirPort cards already, though there are 10/100 16-bit cards. The PowerBook 500 series with the PCMCIA Rev. C "Card Cage" can use certain PCMCIA cards in 7.1.1, too.
At any rate, the fallback method for all PowerBooks with SCSI can use something like the Asante Micro EN/SC or AAUI adapters if they have AAUI onboard, like the 5300 series. A HDI-30 to DB-25 SCSI adapter may be required for certain SCSI to Ethernet adapters because PowerBooks don't come with ... Apple-sized DB-25 SCSI ports.
Notice how the Ethernet card pictured above (for the SE/30) has three ports: the first from the left is 10BASE-T in a 8P8C RJ-45 connector, the middle one is AUI, which is known as Attachment Unit Interface and can either be used for 10BASE-T or 10BASE-2 adapters, and finally 10BASE-2 in a BNC coax port. Some old NuBus cards and the like will only provide an AUI port, an additional dongle adapter is required to hook up with RJ45 based wiring, such as the Farallon StarConnector shown below. (The adapter might come with a driver disk -- the StarConnector is supposed to.) 10BASE-2 Ethernet waned after the increasing adoption of twisted-pair Ethernet; it is also known as ThinNet (and other names) and is simply Ethernet on coaxial cable with T connections for pass-through daisy chaining or vampire taps as needed. AUI was common on network interface cards (NIC) back then because the marketplace was chaotic with three or four competing Ethernet standards (and other standards like TokenRing) and it was not unusual for one place to have one interface (like 10BASE-5) and another might have something else (like 10BASE-2); an adapter converted the interface to coax, fiber, or twisted pair as necessary to the application. Eventually most places settled down on 10BASE-T and everybody lived happily thereafter. Warning: Do not plug in a Macintosh display connector into an AUI socket, or a AUI unit into the Macintosh display interface connector. They look the same (DB-15) but they are electrically incompatible and damage can result. Ofttimes there's a switch on the back of Farallon cards to toggle between Twisted Pair (TP) and ThickNet or ThinNet.
Certain SCSI to Ethernet adapters, like the Dayna Desktop EN/SC, will have major problems with proper operation unless something else is on the chain to terminate the SCSI bus properly. This adapter is not self-terminating so it will cause the Mac's SCSI bus to go haywire. Therefore, the SCSI chain should run like this: Mac -- Ethernet adapter -- SCSI device with internal termination or terminator on it. A useful SCSI device to have on hand is a Zip100 drive - it's not that big, it has a termination switch already on it, the drives and diskettes are usually very inexpensive and is a useful storage supplement - or can even be used as a primary boot device. SCSI CD-ROM drives are usually pretty slow (4x tops) and honestly it's better to just access it over the Ethernet network with CD/DVD drive sharing, although only a Mac can share HFS format CDs.
AAUI was featured on a number of machines, starting in the days of the Quadra 700 and is simply Apple's re-implementation of AUI into a smaller port (the cases of the NIH Syndrome were common back then, and still are today with Apple). The Quadra 610 DOS Compatible shown below has two adapters pictured: one is a simple RJ45 adapter and the other is a four-port hub meant for Workgroup purposes. For most individuals, an adapter alone should suffice. Fortunately 10BASE-T started showing up in later Macs and the AAUI connector was dropped. Incidentally enough IBM made some Ethernet cards that had AAUI, 10-BASE-T and 10BASE-2 on the same card for the PS/2 line. These had MCA bus connectors on full-length, full-height cards which look like ISA and PCI based cards. Otherwise, nobody really had intentions of adopting Apple's AAUI other than firms like Farallon which made AAUI adapters. (IBM called it "Mini AUI" rather than AAUI. Adapters were about 40-60$ USD, about the same price for PCI RJ45 cards, and a LC PDS card cost about 95$, based on a 1999 online ordering list from www.warehouse.com. Memory was also shockingly expensive -- a 128MiB PC100 SDRAM 100MHz module cost about 700$ (1200$ for a 256MiB variant), and a 4MiB 30-pin 80ns SIMM still cost about 80$ in 1999, and double the price there for a 16MiB module. Back in the early '90s, 16MiB modules cost about 500$ each, compared to about 200$ for a 4MiB 70ns non-parity SIMM.)
Some routers will not work with the 10BASE-T 10Mbps interface that these machines use (both a Farallon iPrint LT and a UltraDock 16sce were identified in a router control window as using 10Mbps half-duplex mode). This can be avoided by either using a 10Mbps switch between them, or using an Ethernet cross-over cable if only two computers are involved. However, a router can be advantageous due to its ability to permit all units to access the Internet, and the author observed greater stability with a router rather than a cross-over cable.
When installing the Ethernet card or dongle, ensure the machine is off to avoid any gotchas or electrical problems, and discharging any static electricity is very good idea (a casual jolt of 400 volts is enough to cook ICs). For a compact like the SE/30, remove the four screws on the back of the SE/30 using a long (15 to 20cm shaft length) T-15 Torx: a dedicated screwdriver works better than a hobble-job of adapters that may not fit the holes near the carry handle. Do not use a hex Allen driver on these Torx screws. Compacts can vary in their difficulty of opening the case, so you may have to remove all the screws, invert the unit over something like a couch or a bed and shake the rear cover off. Install the 030 PDS card and replace the cover. Most other machines should be just simple plug-in affairs aside from NuBus cards, which are pretty much the same thing as installing PCI cards.
Once the hardware has been installed, the Ethernet wiring should be fairly straightforward. A cross-over cable is required for direct computer to computer connections (much like a null modem cable) and AFP bridges, but a straight cable is required for a router or switch. Follow the directions from the modem (if the modem and router are integrated), router or switch for configuration if any are in use, as this Guide will assume that these hardware units have already been configured beforehand. The Mac Driver Museum, if it's still online, has a nice library of drivers for a variety of old Mac cards and hardware upgrades like accelerators. The MacGUI website might also have some variants as well.
Serial Port Options
The serial ports on the older Macs are divided into the Printer and the Modem port. Later Macs incorporated both into a "Modem/Printer Port" and the last generation of machines with this interface had GeoPorts which have an additional pin to supply 5v at 350mA max. LocalTalk hardware mainly consists of either mini-DIN-8 cables, LocalTalk splitter boxes, or better, PhoneNET hardware. More information concerning this subject is found in the LocalTalk Networks section. However, there were a variety of LocalTalk to Ethernet bridges produced "back in the day". These include models like the Asante series, the Farallon iPrint LT (the SL model is apparently only for StyleWriter printers) and other models such as Dayna products; the Farallon units work directly with PhoneNET so they are more desirable; whereas the Asante boxes require a Mini-DIN-8 cable. They are fairly common and are a good tool to have around, but they only work with AFP over AppleTalk (not AFP over TCP/IP) and will not work with terminal applications like MacTerminal or ZTerm, nor TCP/IP services like FTP or WWW protocols.
AsanteTalk AFP Bridge
(courtesy thatsteve at 68kmla.org)
The GeoPorts were originally intended to be used with GeoPort (Mini-DIN-9) compatible modems, but in actual practice these modems turned out to be so inferior that they were ditched en masse. The GeoPort "extra pin" draws power off the ADB power rail, just as a note: PowerBooks don't supply as much power to the ADB bus as the desktops do, and drawing more than 100mA is probably not a good idea. PhoneNET adapters do not use this pin, and do not support external clocking. Otherwise, most Macs have Mini-DIN-8 ports and are suitable enough for most purposes. The Macintosh 128K and the 512K/Ke are given DE-9 RS422 ports, these require a different adapter for PhoneNET and Apple official LocalTalk adapters, along with a different adapter for old RS232 DB-25 modems (as was used back in the day).
A Duo 230/100 to a Compaq E500
over an AFP bridge (Win 2K Server)
Other than the extra power supply pin, GeoPorts have the same identical pinout as a regular Mini-DIN-8 RS422 port found in every Mac from the Mac Plus forward (well, the chipset that controls the port is quite a bit different, but that's not a detail that is important right now) and can use all the same serial AFP bridges, PhoneNET adapters, et cetera that a normal Mini-DIN-8 port can use.
There are a couple of Ethernet bridges that communicate over the LocalTalk port which can route TCP/IP traffic, known as hardware MacIP routers. Sample models would be like the Cayman Systems GatorBox, Farallon StarRouter, the Shiva FastPath 5, the Farallon EtherWave Mac/PB adapter (some models are just AAUI to RJ45 adapters, so keep an eye out for that detail, and this unit will not work with OT), and a few other odd ones; some like the EtherWave Mac/PB adapter can also overclock the serial port. The GatorBox also requires pre-OpenTransport OSs to configure it, like System 7 or 7.1. Some hardware MacIP bridges may not work with System 6, or have other quirks.
For serial data transfer options involving terminals, this Guide will be tailored to connecting to newer computers because LocalTalk can work directly between the older Macs. For machines without RS232 ports, a proper USB to RS232 adapter is the first requirement. (Both the DE-9 ports on the 128K and 512K series, and the mini-DIN-8 ports on all other Macs are of the RS422 flavor.) Apparently some cheap junk RS232 adapters do not supply the proper +12V (logical 0) and -12V (logical 1, may vary depending on hardware arrangements) required by proper RS232 devices, may have inactive pins (like DCD) or counterfeit driver chips which won't work with certain hardware but for our purposes, they might work but no guarantees are offered. The cheap ones just convert USB into +5V/-5V hoping to capitalize on the wide signal-high and signal-low tolerance of RS232.
RS232 serial hardware
The next step is a straight DE-9 RS232 cable and a Mini-DIN-8 cable for a manually wired crossover DE-9 to mini-DIN-8 adapter. This subject will be expanded on in the Serial Data Interlinks section.
Typically the older desktop Macs had two serial ports, called "Printer" and "Modem", yet PowerBooks were usually assigned just one. The serial controller, of Zilog make on the older Macs, can support two serial ports off of one controller, basically PORT A and PORT B. In the PC world this would be mapped out to COM1 and COM2 by the BIOS, and reported in Windows or MS-DOS as the same, but in UNIX systems this may be mapped to something like /dev/ttyS0 and /dev/ttyS1. It's basically such so that a Mac user could have plugged his (typical 2400bps, depending on the timeframe and how much he could afford, the dialup provider also had to support the bitrate) modem into the Modem port, but connected to a LocalTalk network for simple communication with nearby Macs and compatible LocalTalk printers. Switching between the remote modem and the local area network then becomes just a matter of software. Functionally the Modem port appears to be identical to the Printer port, although the Printer port is assigned for LocalTalk purposes, unless it is turned off or manually switched to Modem when OpenTransport installed. There could be low-level hardware difference between the Printer and the Modem port, as Inside Macintosh explains, particularly relevant to the 128K and 512K series:
The printer port should be used for output-only connections to devices such as printers, or at low baud rates (300 baud or less). The modem port has no such restrictions. It may be used simultaneously with disk accesses without fear of hardware overrun errors, because whenever the Disk Driver must turn off interrupts for longer than 100 microseconds, it stores any data received via the modem port and later passes the data to the modem port's input driver. (Volume II, Chapter 9, page 246)
A IIci was tested at 57600bps with AppleTalk off and hardware handshaking enabled off the printer port with a ZModem transfer and worked fine. Later Macs like these shouldn't have any such concerns.
There are a certain number of RJ-45 Ethernet to 802.11 WiFi bridges like the NetGear WNCE2001, or routers with custom firmware like "tomato" to enable a "Wireless Ethernet Bridge" feature, and these ought to work fine. Use a modern computer with a good browser to configure them because they have "bloated" configuration panels that are accessed via a browser, like most routers and modems are these days. Suppose it beats DIP switches and modem INIT strings, though.
For PowerBooks with PCMCIA cards, this feature hinges (apparently) on a small number of compatible cards and the whole process is best explained on this site intended for the 1400 and this other one here which seems likewise beneficial. AirPort cards were an option on some of the later PowerBooks, iBooks, and iMacs, and they only support 802.11b at 11Mbps data rate, and they only work with unencrypted, WEP, or WPA-TKIP networks. AirPort Extreme cards are required for the 802.11g (54Mbps) and WPA2 encryption, and they are not substitutable. Don't bother getting 802.11b CardBus cards: 802.11b can only handle 11Mbps, which is not even faster than USB 1.1 in high-speed mode. Instead, track down a 802.11b/g CardBus for Macs with CardBus, and for those with just PCMCIA 16-bit slots, a card which has drivers that will work with 7.5 or 7.6. Those can be hard to find. Cards compatible with OS X can be on shaky ground, as most drivers are kernel level, once they get unstable, they usually take the whole system down with them. It all depends on the driver.
A Lucent Technologies ORiNOCO Silver 802.11b card was examined and tested with a 1400cs in Mac OS 7.6.1. The notable points are: it requires a reboot if the WiFi Access Point is changed from one to another (it's entered into a text field, there's no list of accessible APs: make sure it gets entered correctly) and the control panel is rather crude in appearance. Encryption was not tested. As far as drivers go, the one named "WaveLAN Installer Disk" (download name is apt6041i.hqx) will be compatible with 7.5.2+ and either MacTCP or OpenTransport. Read the Read-Me file for instructions.
The other known drivers in circulation are the ORiNOCO 7.2 and 6.3 drivers. Version 7.2 won't work with 7.5.3, it will probably require 8.5 since it complains about the lack of "AppearenceLib" with OT on and "OTUtilityLib" with it off. Then in Mac OS 8.1 it says it can't find "ControlsLib"...so much for their spec sheet. On the other hand version 6.3 said it wants 8.5.1 or later. It's still a good card to have though, because it's on the Newton WiFi card list (assuming the custom driver) and because of its compatibility with 7.5.3, plus they're not that difficult to get.
Ad-hoc direct WiFi computer to computer networks can be functionally unreliable. Avoid using them to interface with these older systems.
The following list details the software specifications that was used with success for the remainder of this Guide. More information and tips relating to the install procedures can be found in the More Info section.
Note: The installation of AppleShare Client 3.7.4 inhibits the use of Classic Networking in 7.5.3-7.5.5, because while ASC 3.7.4 is installed, OT 1.1.2 or later must be installed for it to be active, and MacTCP doesn't "provide" OpenTransport services. If you wish to use MacTCP in 7.5.3+, then do not install AS 3.7.4. Also, there is an update to OT 1.3, which apparently fixes some "dead space" inside the resource files. This is OT 1.3.1 Update, but it works fine without it. ASC 3.7.4 and OT 1.3 are really only required to hook up to 10.3 and 10.4 - otherwise, the standard install is fine to work with Jaguar.
MacTCP incompatibility (7.5.3)
Depending on the specific software setup in question, the standard NSI installations may not work for that hardware. For instance, the Newer Technologies UltraDock products require proprietary software drivers, as do most Asante Ethernet cards for the SE and SE/30 platforms. However the NSI software should be installed before the driver software, regardless. Technically MacTCP isn't required for local EtherTalk communication but it's a really good idea to install it for WWW, FTP and other services. Additionally, it was found that the default install of EtherTalk software from System 7.0.1 worked with two separate Farallon NICs and an Asante NuBus card: but installing the latest drivers is still suggested.
1 MacTCP v.2.1 is cleaner looking and should be used instead, although this is not mandatory.
- Pre-System 6: Earlier versions of Mac OS such as System Software 5.0 are not distributed by Apple. Therefore, either original floppies or a compatible Mac to make them from disk images is required. This applies to the 128K, 128Ke and the 512K, as they cannot boot System 6. A 512Ke may work well with System 6.0.3 or 6.0.5 via a "Minimal Install for a Macintosh Plus" but may be handicapped by the memory problem. Internet access with pre-System 6 hardware is possible to a degree: head here for TCP and look here. MacTCP is not supported on pre-System 6 software (the oldest known version of MacTCP, version 1.0, requires 6.0.3).
MacTCP 1.0 was alleged to have an installer script for the 512Ke but this cannot be verified owing to the absence of MacTCP 1.0 on the Internet. But the Asante Ethernet installer disk version 5.6.1 has MacTCP 1.1.1 on it, and it will work with a 512Ke (being interpreted as, "it didn't bomb the system"). MacTCP 2.x will not run on a 512Ke because it throws a Memory Manager bomb on startup, likewise with MacPPP 2.0.1.
- System 6.0.8: System Install, AppleShare Workstation 3.5, MacTCP v2.0.61, Network Software Install v1.4.5 (NSI), and Ethernet device drivers if required. There is an EtherTalk 1.2 install option on the AppleShare File Server 2 diskettes, although it will likely only work with official cards like the Apple Ethernet NB card for the Mac II series (there's no list of compatible cards for the extension). You may safely ignore it.
- System 7.0.1: System Install, AppleShare Workstation 3.5, MacTCP v2.0.61, Network Software Install v1.5.1 (NSI), and Ethernet device drivers if required. Note: System 7 requires a Mac with 2MiB or more of memory.
There have been rumors on various places which say that System 7.0 or 7.1 need the File Sharing Extension from 7.5.3 to link to OS X. It is not technically correct, but it does permit an OS X 10.3 Panther system to mount a System 7 or 7.1 server. Also the author managed to install OT 1.1.2 onto 7.0.1 but the only difference immediately visible was the lack of the TCP/IP and MacTCP control panels: basically unusable either way.
- System 7.1: 7.1 is not officially distributed by Apple. If you want 7.1, you'll have to get it from the Legacy Recovery CD or other sources; 7.1 can have more capabilities (like the Scriptable Finder, version 7.1.3) and can run OpenTransport, but OT will not work on 68000 or 68020 Macs; third party 68030 accelerators may or may not work with OT either on a 68000 or 68020 host. OT 1.1.1 requires 5MiB or greater on a 68030 or 68040 and 8MiB on a PowerPC processor machine. To install OT 1.3, OT 1.1.2 must be installed first, which won't install unless OT 1.1.1 is present, so install OT 1.1.1 before anything else. Otherwise, the same AppleShare WS, NSI 1.5.1 and device driver rules from 7.0.1 apply to 7.1. Installing OT with 7.1 or 7.5 changes nothing concerning the maximum Mac OS X version they can connect to: it's the same with or without OT because of the AppleShare client version compatibility.
- System 7.5.3: System Install, 7.5.5 Update and AppleShare Client 3.7.4, Open Transport 1.3, and any Ethernet device drivers if required. 8 megabytes of memory or more along with a capable 68030 or higher is recommended, as 7.5.5 with OT on in an idle state occupies about 3,868KB by itself on a SE/30.
- System 7.6 and above: These are not available from Apple's download page. Thus, the only way to get it is either digitally or via an official CD. 7.6 was available on floppy disks but OS 8 and above are only distributed via a CD (unless Mac OS 8 on 27 FDs from an expired Apple dev FTP server counts). For 7.6, Open Transport 1.3 and AppleShare 3.8.3; read this page if you have greater than 7.6. Open Transport 1.3 covers up to 8.1, for 8.5 (uses OT 2.0) and above there shouldn't be any additional software, unless one desires AppleShare IP.2 7.6 should be updated to 7.6.1, 8.0 to 8.1 and 8.5 to 8.6 -- especially concerning 8.0 because it is known for being unstable. 8.1 also introduced FAT32 support.
2 Certain Macs require machine-specific (gray) discs that are unique to a particular machine model, such as the iBook G3 800/900MHz and the iMac G4 700/800MHz computers. These have system extensions and drivers that are required to permit them to operate correctly, usually concerning Mac OS 9.2.2.
The first recommendation of this Guide is to download, back up the .iso, and burn a copy of the Legacy Recovery CD here or from another source. It is a 7.6.1 bootable CD and is chock full of useful disk images and software versions like the System 7.1 binary for the Macintosh TV. This package of MacTest Pro has some helpful Emergency bootable disks for troublesome systems.
The Legacy Recovery CD is immensely helpful aside from the fact that it has all the disk images stored as NDIF Read-Only Compressed format. Only Disk Copy 6.1.2 or higher can process them. Use an emulator to convert them to NDIF Read-Only or Disk Copy 4.2 format if required. Browse the Working with Disk Images section of the More Info page for more detailed text on this issue. There are other mirrors and sources for software, when this Guide references software available, it usually can be found at www.macgui.com or the Macintosh Garden. At the present time, this dump of Apple's legacy downloads (just browse the contents by clicking the little [contents] link), max1zzz's mirror and this Australian mirror seem to be good to go. (The last one has FTP access, too. For Fetch 2.1.2, use ftp.iinet.net.au for the Host, username can be left alone at anonymous, password field empty, directory would be /pub/apple.)
Some quick transfer rate data for networks (individual usage figures may vary) can be found in the More Info section here. More trivia: The SE/30 can push memory around at about 5MiB/sec (spec says 15.67MiB/s, compared to a IIfx, which specs 60.69MiB/s), which is part of the reason for RAM disks running faster, plus there is no SCSI bus to go through; and a standard SCSI hard drive of this vintage has a throughtput of about 3MiB/sec maximum (more around 2.5MiB/sec).
In the former days when cathode-ray tubes (CRT) were dominate, screensavers were commonly used to provide insurance against burn-in. Burn-in is a concept where an image that gets too much continuous exposure on the display becomes "highlighted" against the display. The effect was not as pronounced in the later Trinitrons and other monitors made in the late 1990s and early 2000s but by that time TFT displays were starting to get cheap enough that CRTs, with their bulk and power disadvantages, were regulated to the dumpster bins. Among the vulnerable classes are Compacts because their 1-bit displays spend a lot of time drawing a white menu bar. Bad cases will have visible "ghosting" when the unit is off and really bad examples will have ghosting artifacts visible when the unit is on. The damage is permanent and cannot be repaired. LCD displays do not need screensavers, although they were sometimes used for aesthetic purposes. This also dates back in the golden years of After Dark with numerous creative modules, some were games (like Lunatic Fringe), others were iconic (like Starry Night and Flying Toasters), some were artistic with geometric and arithmetically inspired graphics, and so on.
Good old Starry Night
Common screensaver utilities included After Dark, Flex, Pyro!, Basic Black and other programs. Some were simple and lightweight affairs meant to minimize space on disk. There are no known screensaver programs or DAs meant for the 128K series, so you'll just have to crank the brightness all the way down.
While we're discussing displays, passive matrix displays were often used on notebook computers. Commonly identified by their sluggish refresh rates, ghosting and weird lines projecting from objects. Contrast had to be adjusted on a semi-frequent basis (depending on the image on the display, color depth, the desktop background, environment, lighting, et cetera) but fortunately they usually had hardware based adjustment methods. Color passive matrix displays are even trickier to adjust the contrast to balance out the color elements to minimize artifacts but the panel on the 1400cs is noticeably better in grayscale than the Duo 230's. Not recommended for precision color work...Also the viewing angles, contrast ratios, color balance, et cetera were all rubbish by modern standards. Still, you won't see an equivalent of the 640x400 electro-luminescent yellow-on-black display of a Dynamac or the cool red gas plasma display of a Compaq Portable III (later Portable 386 as well) on a modern computer.
A rare Dynamac machine
This particular Dynamac is owned by Haplain at 68kmla.org, as part of his collection. Few are known to exist, much less with the original box. It's based on a Macintosh Plus (not the rumored version based on a Macintosh SE) and features 4MiB of RAM and the original 40MiB hard drive, with a mouse just like it would have come from Dynamac Computer Products. Back in the day (around 1988), this unit as configured, would have cost over 6,490$, and that was with 1MiB of RAM and a 40MiB hard drive: adding more memory would have stacked the price tag even more. Memory was around 150$ per mebibyte back then. The Infoworld review (August 8th, 1988 publication, Volume 10 Issue 32) of this model doesn't say the memory capacity of the unit they tested. Another Chicago Tribune article says a Dynamac with 4MiB of RAM and a 40MiB hard drive could have been acquired for an eye-popping 8,000$, which could have been saved for a really nice upgraded SE/30 just six months later and which weighed just a little bit more. More of Haplain's personal collection can be found at his homepage. The clear backlit Macintosh Portable M5126 in his hands is certainly a thing of beauty, for sure.
Only 68000, 68020 and some 68030 processor equipped machines can boot System 6, practically the 512Ke is the lowest machine that can do so. There are no 68040 Macs that can boot System 6: although a 68030 host with a hot-shot 68040 accelerator like a Daystar Turbo 040 (especially if it is the 40MHz version with a 128KiB cache) will be "wicked fast": add plenty of RAM and run everything entirely in RAM for a new perspective on computing! System 6 is a good primary operating system for the older Macs like the Plus, with System 7.0.1 held in reserve for special cases; but 7.1 does offer additional benefits like a Scriptable Finder (v. 7.1.3, comes on the 7.1 Pro disks). For all other 68K Macs that can handle System 6, it is a good system to keep for special scenarios like handling 400KiB disks, and certain applications like Airborne! or Microsoft Works 2.0 which require System 6; otherwise, System 7.0.1 or 7.1 is a more useful primary operating system. Most of the later 68030s like the LCIII and the Duo 230 require System 7.0.1 or 7.1. Early PPC 601s usually want 7.1.2 minimum, but starting with the 603e they all wanted 7.5.3 minimum, as a general rule.
In Mac OS 7 thru 9.2.2, Program Linking is an option available in the Sharing Setup control panel (also known as File Sharing starting with Mac OS 8). Program Linking is for certain applications which can be linked over a network in certain ways. See this Apple KB for more on this. Generally, it is not required and is not needed to play network games, either. Remember that the application must be enabled as well in the File/Get Info menu (or File/Sharing...), and also should be compatible (i.e. SimpleText is not compatible, but WordPerfect 3.0 is).
There is a great library of Type and Creator information within this software (best used with Mac OS 9 or early OS X like Jaguar). It must be stressed that the full database requires a purchase of a key, plus the Panorama DB software has to be registered as well. (Related version. Can be saved as a text file, then imported into a spreadsheet.) Creator Changer 2.8.4 or ResEdit with the "Get File/Folder Info..." can change these codes: Finder Info 1.1.1 and early versions of ResEdit like 1.3D1 can edit these in System 6 and some earlier systems. Creator Changer is not really necessary for the occasional tweak, and ResEdit has more utility. On the other hand Creator Changer (and a few others in its class) do let users store "kinds" so it can be faster, if that is important.
According to this site, MacTCP originally came with the Apple Internet Connection Kit (also known as the Macintosh TCP Connection Kit) and retailed for $50. It also included MacPPP for dialup and some other goodies.
TCDB database (10.2 Jaguar)
It could have been had for a little as $25 with the Internet Starter Kit...or by buying 7.5, which retailed for about $99 to $129 back in the day...and plucking it out of the System Folder...as it is just a control panel...(7.5 did not include PPP though).
At Ease was an Apple product that was basically the Launcher control panel (System 7.5+) made into a Finder substitute. It would be easy to conclude that it was meant for setups like kiosk computers, library computers, and other reduced or simplified computing arrangements. There is a way to add a network share onto the list of applications/documents on inside At Ease, but the shares don't seem to be capable of browsing, but with proper permissions (and likely At Ease 2.0.x and up rather than At Ease 1.0) users can use the Open dialog inside applications to open documents inside remote servers.
According to the At Ease 2.0 documentation, file sharing is disabled under the At Ease environment, so other computers won't be able to access the At Ease enabled machine. The Chooser can be added to the Apple menu of course, but the remote share won't be navigable, so it's pretty much a waste of time. At Ease for Workgroups is supposed to have greater emphasis on multi-user situations with At Ease, and it is supposed to be slightly better in the remote share department, but the author couldn't quite figure out the process for actually navigating a remote share like the regular Finder.
At Ease 1.0 (2.0 and 3.0 similar)
Best that could be done (At Ease 1.0)
For System 6 and 7.0/7.1, try to avoid handling volumes that are larger than 2GiB (2,097,152KiB, 2048MiB) because HFS in these versions cannot address more than 2GiB volumes. 7.5 has support for 4GiB volumes, and 7.5.2 (immediately replaced by 7.5.3) supports up to 2TiB (see the External Links section for more on this).
Note that these older file systems used the "classical" interpretation of MB and KB where 1KB is 1024 bytes and 1MB is 1024KB (or 1024 x 1024 bytes), not the modern IEC-approved idea which says that 1KB is 1000 bytes and 1MB is 1000KB (or 1000 x 1000 bytes). The "modern" translation of the "classic" 1024 definition is the KiB, MiB, or GiB; this Guide will use the modern definition. (Obligatory comic here) The exception will be with 1.44MB floppies, because while they are actually 1,474,560 bytes, the math was calculated to mean 1474560 divided by 1024 and divided again by 1000 to produce a result of 1.44MB. So while this author would prefer to use 1.40MiB, convention will prevail for the sake of conformity. Plain and simple, 1KB is 1000 bytes, 1MB is 1000 KB, and 1GB is 1000MB; 1KiB is 1024 bytes, 1MiB is 1024KiB and 1GiB is 1024MiB.
A cheat for Windows 2K Server which seemed to have the most issues concerning this brick wall is to format an SD card or USB thumbdrive as NTFS (Windows XP can't do it, but Windows 2000 can, and only NTFS volumes can be shared with the SFM service: or use something like gParted in Linux) and put a share on that volume if it's less than 2GiB. Or, use Netatalk inside a VM. Certain Macs can create RAM disks through the Memory control panel, which then can be easily shared as long as it is 2MiB or greater in size. Jaguar can format a Flash volume, e.g. USB thumbdrive as HFS Standard but 10.3 Panther and above won't do it.
SharePoints is an addon to Mac OS X 10.1 thru 10.4 which allows the creation of additional share folders, just like in the old Finder of System 7 thru OS 9.2.2, where users could share any folder they desired. The addon can run as a program or as a .prefpane inside the System Preferences application. Folders can be easily configured for SMB (Windows, Linux) computers to access or AFP purposes. The images below give a sample of what it looks like under 10.2 Jaguar. An attempt was made to share a non-logical disk, a USB thumbdrive and a mounted disk image on the computer, without success.
The name "Workstation" tends to be associated with "client" and in System 6 and earlier systems, two clients cannot communicate with each other. In such case, there must be a server (AppleShare Server 2+ or any System 7+ machine) to provide the files and the clients must use that as a central communication hub. AppleShare for clients was called AppleShare Workstation from version 1.0 up to 3.6.5, starting with version 3.7 it was renamed AppleShare Client but they are the same overall thing.
In the event that a program has frozen the computer, activating the programmer's interrupt (varies according to machine in question) and typing
G Finder can sometimes work. If Macsbug is installed, striking the interrupt switch calls up Macsbug. Typing es attempts to quit back to the Finder. Saving any important work and restarting the computer promptly is a highly recommended procedure because the memory is usually in a unstable fragmented state. An alternative technique is to use the ExitToShell trap. Some Macs do not have physical interrupt/reset buttons, like PowerBooks. Use the Command + Control + Power button reset (reboot) the machine: Command + Power is the same thing as the interrupt feature.
Gamba has prepared an interesting table here that describes some alternative applications that can mimic AFP networking. These avenues will not be explored as part of this Guide, except for EasyShare. JC Remote is very unstable and can only link up to another computer with JC Remote installed.
CheckNET is a utility developed by some Farallon developers to help diagnose AppleTalk networks, and it came as a DA for System 6 and a standalone program for System 7. It will report both EtherTalk (AFP over Ethernet) and LocalTalk traffic, but it has very limited usefulness. For instance, only a certain select few computers will be compatible with it, the rest will kick an error dialog saying that it can only query "Responder-compliant sockets". Responder was a system extension which would "respond" to diagnostic programs back in the former days. It's not necessary for regular network function and can be safely ignored and deleted. The nearby image shows what it looks like with Windows 2000 Server, Netatalk with Apple II services and a CD share, OS X 10.2.8 Jaguar and a Macintosh LC over LocalTalk. Of those systems, only the LC could provide any system information whatsoever, and a test with Mac OS 9 wouldn't respond to the system information query. Mac OS 9 does have a few additional entries, like "ARA - Personal...", "SharewayIP" and "Multi-User Cli...", but other than those it looks the same.
CheckNET with various systems connected (System 7.0.1)
The utility comes on on a Compact Pro self-extracting archive on a Farallon EN Installer disk in the Utilities folder. It could probably be useful for really big AppleTalk networks but it won't be applicable to smaller ones like what most folks are going to be using these days.
About AppleTalk zones. A zone is a method of dividing up servers into manageable areas, generally used with big networks. For instance, a newspaper company may have a number of zones, such as Management, Research, Printing Department, Public Relations and so on. Computers were assigned into a specific zone based on their intended purpose. Zones are created in two nominal ways: software or hardware. A *NIX system with Netatalk, Windows Server with Services for Macintosh or a few other server or routing software are examples of software configured zones. They can be created in hardware with routers like the Cayman Systems GatorBox. While obtaining proper reading material which adequately discusses the subject is hard to find, it is fortunate that most users will never have to approach the subject, especially these days because few will make an AppleTalk network big enough to warrant zoning. A computer network with more than twenty computers is probably eligible, though. In TCP parlance, a AppleTalk zone is the same principle as a large network with different subnets for a multitude of smaller networks.
It has come to light that Mac OS 8 and later will unbless older Systems like System 6 if they are mounted (like a floppy disk). Make sure to have an extra bootable floppy or lock the disk to insure against this occurrence. The principle of "blessing" is designating a folder as bootable, and this is usually indicated by a tiny image of a Compact Mac inside the folder icon. A folder must have certain minimal elements to be bootable, two being System and Finder. Opening the folder and then closing it should update it. For emergency purposes, a Disk Tools disk can help, or the 7.5 Network Access disk, a bootable CD, or in extreme cases, imaging the disk, blessing the System Folder in an emulator, then writing it back out again. The OS X terminal command bless is mainly for OS 9 situations: read the man page.
When a device has driver support for "Mac OS 8" that usually applies to Mac OS 8.6, because that is when USB support came into fruitation. Also when most people mention "Carbon" programs for Mac OS 8, that essentially suggests 8.6, although 8.1 can also run some Carbonized applications.
And one last thing. Avoid using composite memory modules in Macs. They are easily identified as far as 30-pin SIMMs go because a regular SIMM has eight chips per SIMM, nine if it is a parity RAM module which most Macs won't even use the parity function. A composite SIMM has typically two chips per SIMM or three if it is a parity module. Unexplained crashes, freezes and other unusual events, if they are not related to bad traces, dying hard drives, shot capacitors or other common hardware issues, could point to the RAM modules.
So let's get started.
AFP is the default for Mac to Mac interconnection, and it went through quite a number of major versions, rendering some incompatible with others. The Chart, as we will call it, will be an attempt to showcase the various compatibility across various software versions. Start by picking a System Software version on the leftmost column and read the row across. The "connectible" OS is the one that the System can mount to its file system: for example, OS X 10.4 Tiger can mount Mac OS 9 or higher on its desktop; anything "lower" and it will not work. However the 10.4 Tiger platform can be mounted on a 7.5.3+ system if configured properly with TCP/IP services.
|System Software||Lowest connectible Mac OS via Apple Filing Protocol||Highest connectible Mac OS via Apple Filing Protocol||Windows 2000 Server with SFM;Linux (Netatalk)||Other protocols compatible with all machines|
|System 3.3, Finder 5.4 (512K, 512Ke) up to System 5.1 (S4.3, F6.0) with AppleShare WS 1.1 ||EasyShare Demo|
AppleShare File Server (ASFS)
2.0.1 (see note); System 7
|9.2; 10.2, except 10.0 (see note): AFP bridge may be required|
AppleShare IP 5 & 6: read only
|Not compatible; AFP bridge required||Terminal Software; SLIP; TOPS Terminal|
|System 6, 7.0, 7.1, 7.5.0-7.5.2|
AppleShare WS 3.5 (see note below)
|10.0 lacks EtherTalk drivers|
|AFP bridge, Ethernet; AFP bridge, Ethernet, Ethernet>WiFi bridge||LocalTalk; LocalTalk PC; SLIP; PPP; FTP; Telnet; SSH in System 7+; Terminal Software|
|System 7.5.3 to 7.6.1|
ASC 3.7.4, OT 1.3 (7.5.3-7.5.5)
ASC 3.8.3, OT 1.3 (7.6.1)
|10.4||AFP bridge, Ethernet; AFP bridge, Ethernet, WiFi||LocalTalk; LocalTalk PC; PPP; OT/PPP; FTP; Telnet; SSH; Terminal Software; this Apple KB|
|Mac OS 8.1 to 8.6|
ASC 3.8.3, OT 1.3 (8.1 only)
|10.4; 10.5 can be accessed only by Guest account|
|AFP bridge, Ethernet; AFP bridge, Ethernet, WiFi||LocalTalk; LocalTalk PC; OT/PPP; FTP; Telnet; SSH; Terminal Software; this Apple KB|
|Mac OS 9.0, 9.1, 9.2||EasyShare Demo|
|AFP bridge, Ethernet; AFP bridge, Ethernet, WiFi||LocalTalk; LocalTalk PC; OT/PPP; FTP; Telnet; SSH; Terminal Software; this Apple KB|
|OS X 10.1 Puma|
OS X 10.2 Jaguar
OS X 10.3 Panther
|10.1 and 10.2: System 7|
10.3: System 7, with FSE 7.6.2
AppleShare Server 3, 4, IP 5 & 6
|10.10||Ethernet; Ethernet, WiFi||SMB; FTP; SSH; Terminal Software; Samba (Linux)|
|OS X 10.4 Tiger|
OS X 10.5 Leopard
OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard
|Mac OS 9.0|
AppleShare Server IP 5 & 6
|10.10||Ethernet; Ethernet, WiFi||SMB; FTP; SSH; Terminal Software; Samba (Linux)|
|OS X 10.7 Lion|
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion
OS X 10.9 Mavericks
OS X 10.10 Yosemite
|OS X||10.10||Not compatible, use SMB;Ethernet, WiFi||SMB; SMB2 (10.9+); FTP; SSH; Terminal Software; Samba (Linux)|
Here are some important notes for this chart:
- AppleShare WS 1.1 and File Server 2.0: See this More Info section. System 3.3/Finder 5.4 up to System 5.1 (S4.3, F6.0) connect only over LocalTalk. The first time the author tried a connection to OS X 10.2 Jaguar with AppleShare WS 1.1, the client returned an error saying the AFP protocols were incompatible; a later attempt was successful with the same exact setup (SharePoints was installed, in case that makes a difference). ASFS 2.0 is considered "lower" than System 7.0, because it runs under System 6, and System 7 has a basic server built-in. It is possible to connect up to the usual Netatalk, Windows 2000 Server, and OS X 10.2.8 limitations of System 6 within AppleShare Server 2, but nothing can be done with the result, as the volumes can't be accessed via the Finder neither are they recognized by the Administration app to be "re-shared" or "sharing a share".
- AppleShare IP: A suite of software that has AFP over TCP/IP service, FTP server, web server, mail service, and other features. Mac OS 7.6+ can run AppleShare IP 5, although it is notorious for being very picky about hardware: this chart and this spec sheet for AppleShare IP 5 can be informative.
- AppleShare WS 3.5: Not necessarily required in all cases but is worth the effort (AppleShare 2.0 is 44KiB in System 6 versus 76KiB of AppleShare Workstation 3.5, AppleShare 7.0 in System 7 is 72KiB). There is more verbiage about 2GiB volumes further up this page in the Assorted Notes section. Quick breakdown of issues noted:
- Windows 2K Server SFM: 6.0.8 and AS 2.0 (default) or 7.0.1 with AS 7.0 (default): Bombs or crashes if volume size is greater than 2GiB, less than 2GiB is fine. If AS WS 3.5 is installed, then all volumes over 2GiB are read only. 7.5.3 default (3.6.1RevB) seems to be okay but volume sizes under 2GiB recommended
- Mac OS X 10.2.8: System 6 with AS 2.0 can't use the Drop Box. Again less than 2GiB volume sizes are a good idea, if it can be done
- Netatalk 2.1.6: No abnormalities observed. There is a volsizelimit feature for AppleVolumes.default
Only upgrade to Workstation 3.5 for System 6, 7.0, 7.1 and 7.5. 7.5.1 and 7.5.2 can upgrade to Workstation 3.6.5. In 7.5.3 and 7.5.5, it is possible to upgrade to AppleShare Client 3.7.4 but then OpenTransport must be turned on. Do not upgrade to ASC 3.7.4 if classic networking mode is preferred.
- Mac OS X Server: These editions of Mac OS X can stretch the limitations defined above, however this Guide does not discuss Mac OS X Server. OS X Server can net-boot and net-install other Macs, which can be a useful feature in a pinch (or Target Disk Mode).
- Windows: Windows NT Server 3.51 and 4.0, Windows Server 2000 (NT 5.0) and 2003 (NT 5.2) can run a variant of an AFP server, and various other third-party software like Novell's Netware, Jaffer (Java AFP server), COPSTalk for Windows, Personal MACLAN Connect, PhoneNET PC, AppleShare Client for Windows, and other versions which are not covered in detail in this Guide. Windows 2000 Server is the only case demonstrated: 2003 Server could work with 10.7+ but it is not on hand for testing. SMB networking to OS X platforms is not a subject of this Guide, but this Apple KB may be of interest. Software like DAVE which enables Mac OS 7.6 thru 9 to access SMB networks are not discussed entirely. (Technically they are more on the profile of CIFS, but...) Better bet is to run Windows 2000/2003 Server on a dedicated machine (or a VM) or get a Linux server going with Netatalk -- AFP works better when possible -- and Windows 2000/2003 SFM is actually fairly good. Windows 2000 by default doesn't work so well with WiFi adapters but Windows 2003 Server should.
AppleShare Client for Windows was primarily intended for DOS 3.3 or Windows 3.0; a really old PC box is the only way to test these out. See this page on installation and an associated troubleshooting reference for further information on setup.
Windows NT Server 3.51 is probably okay to run on really old PC hardware, or NT Server 4.0. Are there any advantages to such a setup versus a more modern Pentium III, Pentium 4 or Pentium M with Windows 2000 Server? Probably not. But here is a tutorial for NT 4.0. Make sure to install the updates and service packs. As for NT Server 3.51, the Macintosh server feature has to be installed when the OS is first installed. Probably better to use Windows 2000 Server...
- ShareWay IP Personal:This software can allow 7.5.5 or higher systems to run "true" AFP over TCP/IP. (This explains this feat written here, it's probably just in the background.) The upper access limit (i.e. 10.6, 10.7 etc) is not known. 7.5.3 with OT 1.3 and ASC 3.7.4 can run a "limited" variant of AFP over TCP/IP (which is why it only works up to 10.4). Some users have reported terribly slow transfer rates, just as a precaution.
- Disk image bridging: This is a practice that works like this: Say a MacBook Pro with 10.8 Mountain Lion needs to get a file to a Mac Plus with System 6. One way is to create a disk image, say 100MiB, but don't mount it. Start up a bridge Mac with preferably OS 9 on it, which then navigates to the location of the disk image, mounts it, then do a Get Info on it and then share that out. The Plus should be able to read it: as long as the MacBook Pro doesn't try to open it until everybody else has closed it. OS X doesn't work very well when it comes to sharing removable media, like USB thumbdrives. Use Mac OS 9 for that, or maybe Netatalk, assuming it's not HFS (only Mac OS can work natively with HFS and HFS+ filesystems).
- NFS: Sometimes used by *NIX software, this Guide doesn't explore the world of NFS. However, at Macintosh Garden, there is MacNFS and NFS/Share. Feel free to download and experiment (registration required to view thread).
- Mac OS X 10.0: This software is omitted for stability reasons. Any hardware that can run this OS can run Jaguar. AFP over AppleTalk is not included in 10.0 (only AFP over TCP/IP, there is a use_appletalk field in the NetInfo Manager but it doesn't work) but 10.1 reincorporated it, is fully featured in 10.2, but AFP over AppleTalk was reduced in capability with 10.3, and restricted to printers with 10.4. 10.6 gutted it entirely and thusly 10.5 is the last to deal with the old classes of printers (mostly Color StyleWriters and LaserWriters. Printing is not a subject of this Guide entirely).
- Samba: This is a open-source networking stack for linking up to Windows systems which by default use the Microsoft Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. OS X includes a variant of Samba for Windows compatibility, as does Linux (at least the more popular distros do).
- CD/DVD drive sharing: For Mac OS systems, HFS or CDFS can be shared over the network to a Classic Mac. For sharing a D: drive under Windows 2000/2003 Server, the type must be CDFS (Windows can't read HFS entirely). Linux testing with Netatalk indicated identical limitations.
- Versions: The versions of Mac OS specified generally mean the highest sub-version possible (like 6.0.8, 7.5.5, 10.3.9, 10.4.11, 10.5.8, et cetera).
- Other systems:
- Amiga: See this section for a word about the Amiga platform.
- A/UX: A/UX requires Ethernet drivers proprietary to A/UX (the standard NSI distributions are not compatible). This A/UX FAQ should cover most bases -- also, try Googling "a/ux networking tcp/ip" to look up a couple Apple KB articles. Apple says that Phase 2 driver support in A/UX is left up to the developers -- meaning that unless the official Apple Ethernet NB card is at your disposal (the NSI 1.4.5 and 1.5.1 disks have a A/UX 2.0.x driver) , it's pretty much a luck of the draw whether a third party card will work. Because of the exclusivity of A/UX, no further research or information is covered by this Guide.
- Android: Android should have SSH and FTP software; Netatalk does not appear to be available. There is a span of FTP server and client software in the Google Play store: sharing out the MicroSD card (if equipped) as share directory could be useful.
- iOS: iOS does have a Cydia distro of Netatalk. If you have iFile (the Cydia sourced file management application which has file system access), it is possible to host a web server which can be accessed from a web browser (like http://192.168.3.102:10000)-- this is probably the most pragmatical option for system level access. iFiles (a document manager on the App Store) has a similar feature and an option to add FTP or SFTP services, but will only work within the application itself (no getting out of the sandbox, like other App Store apps); a recent update added AFP support -- requires an OS X server (won't work with OS 9 or earlier) and has a strange anomaly where it won't work on a LAN without Internet access. The openSSH library from Cydia is another popular choice for system-level access. In Cydia there are a couple of packages for SMB based on the Samba stack -- this Guide does not discuss SMB however.
- Apple II:Apple // machines of the IIGS and IIe Enhanced class should work over LocalTalk; as the IIGS has mini-DIN-8 ports and the IIe Enhanced can run the Workstation card; alternatively over Ethernet. A further note is here. This page covers terminal data transfer with a serial console (in regards to OS X, but relevant for other systems).
- LocalTalk PC:Some LocalTalk PC card info, some other miscellaneous info here and a curious page here.
- Mac OS X 10.5 and up: There is a MacPorts port of Netatalk 2.0.5. Fink has yet to list an available port of Netatalk in this manner. For these computers, running something like Ubuntu Server inside a VM might be a better alternative. A user has posted some clues on a forum for consideration.
- SneakerNet: Floppy disks are best explained in this section. CDs require extensions or drivers (if not installed by default) and can only read HFS or certain CDFS ISO formats (with extension support), so this is one avenue. Some of the later Power Macintosh G3 series have DVD drives. Zip disks are possible also but are a specialized journey in themselves because of the driver stored on the actual disk itself. Syquest and other oddball formats like WORM are not covered by this Guide. Install the Desktop Manager into System 6 to inhibit the Finder from attempting to rebuild the Desktop file on a CD.
Zip disks are good, if they work, and are reasonably fast. The only one the author got to play with had serious troubles formatting and using it, with system freezes and lockups with and without the Lido 7.56 driver. This sounds abnormal because many have spoken highly of the Zip drive peripheral. To sum up, if it works -- it is fantastic for a Plus. If not -- it can provide major headaches. Some form of preserving any valuable disks, such as with a disk image utility, is prudent. Use the Desktop Manager INIT for System 6 to stop it from needlessly rebuilding the Desktop File for those who have System 7 onboard with System 6. Always keep some recovery floppies on hand should things go haywire.
SneakerNet: 1.44MB, 800KiB,
SuperDISK LS-120, Zip100 and a...CD
System 6 through Mac OS 9.2.2 Setup
Classic Networking refers to the use of MacTCP for external communication over TCP networks. LocalTalk is independent of this, aside from MacIP routing which works differently than the other interfaces: the Network control panel (Classic Networking) or AppleTalk control panel (OpenTransport) is for selecting the interface for AFP to use and has nothing to do with TCP services except when AFP over TCP is used. LocalTalk could be used over the Printer port for instance, yet have TCP services going out through an Ethernet interface. Only with AppleShare IP, Mac OS 9 or OS X does the TCP/IP configuration become significant. MacTCP has no influence whatsoever on EtherTalk or LocalTalk traffic, and the same goes for OpenTransport -- until 8.x with AppleShare IP 5 or Mac OS 9 (with or without AppleShare IP 6).